Alienation of Affection & Criminal Conversation
We have a wealth of experience as Charlotte Alienation of Affection & Criminal Conversation Lawyers and can guide you through the entire legal process. Please contact us if you have any questions or would like to schedule a consultation. We are happy to provide more details on Alienation of Affection & Criminal Conversation below:
- Although the claims Alienation of Affection and Criminal Conversation are often paired and discussed together, the two claims can be brought separately.
- Both claims are civil actions (and not criminal despite the terms “Criminal Conversation”) brought against a third party paramour, or lover.
- Both claims are commonly referred to as “Heart-Balm” actions and more than half of the states have abolished them. The actions are often discussed in the North Carolina legislature and abolishment in North Carolina is possible in the near future.
- Both claims can be raised before or after a person and his or her spouse have separated or divorced.
- There is a three (3) year statute of limitations on both actions. For Alienation of Affection, this begins running at the time of the loss of the affection.
- Alienation of Affections is a civil action against a third party lover for that lover’s conduct that deprived the plaintiff of the love and affection that previously existed between Plaintiff and his or her spouse. The Plaintiff does not have to show evidence of adultery.
- Generally, the requirements for a claim of Alienation of Affection are:
- Plaintiff and his or her spouse were happily married and a genuine love and affection existed between them;
- Defendant’s or the paramour’s actions were a contributing factor that caused Plaintiff’s spouse to alienate his or her affections from Plaintiff;
- Defendant was aware that his or her actions would likely cause Plaintiff’s spouse to alienate his or her affections from Plaintiff;
- For Compensatory Damages: Defendant’s conduct proximately resulted in Plaintiff’s loss of services in the home, loss of support, including present and future earnings of his or her spouse, loss of consortium (sexual relations),emotional distress (and, in some cases, therapy costs and costs of prescription medication), and/or injury to Plaintiff’s reputation. Compensatory damages may also include the costs of litigation, including attorney’s fees for both the Alienation or Criminal conversation action or attorney’s fees involving, his or her spouse if the relationship with Plaintiff’s spouse ended subsequent to his or her relationship with Defendant; and
- For Punitive Damages: Defendant’s conduct was willful, malicious, wanton, and oppressive.
- A defense specific to Alienation of Affection
- There was no love and affection that existed between Plaintiff and his or her spouse.
- Criminal Conversation is a civil action brought for adultery. It is what’s called a strict liability action in that if your spouse has sexual relations with a third party, then that third party has committed Criminal Conversation and civil damages may be sought.
- Generally, the requirements for a claim of Criminal Conversation are:
- Defendant and Plaintiff’s spouse engaged in an adulterous relationship while Plaintiff and his spouse were married;
- For Compensatory Damages: Defendant’s wrongful and malicious conduct proximately damaged Plaintiff by casting dishonor on the marriage bed, alienating the affections of Plaintiff’s spouse for him or destroying domestic comfort, causing loss of consortium (sexual relations), loss of support, including present and future earnings of his spouse, emotional distress (and, in some cases, therapy costs and costs of prescription medication)resulting in mental anguish and humiliation. The costs of litigation can also be included, including attorney’s fees, with the Plaintiff’s spouse if the relationship with Plaintiff’s spouse ended subsequent to his or her relationship with Defendant; and
- For Punitive Damages: Defendant’s conduct was willful, malicious, wanton, and oppressive.
- A defense specific to Criminal Conversation is:
- Other various counterclaims or defenses can be raised if these claims are brought against a third party lover. Some of those counterclaims or defenses are:
- Invasion of Privacy
- Malicious Prosecution
- Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress
- Abuse of Process
What do Alienation of Affection and Criminal Conversation have in common?
Alienation of Affection and Criminal Conversation are two separate claims that are often paired together. Both claims are civil actions that are brought against a third party lover, commonly referred to in litigation as a “paramour”. For example, let’s say a couple is married. Very generally speaking, the wife has an extra-marital relationship that may or may not include sexual relations. As a result of the conduct of wife’s paramour, Wife’s relationship with her husband diminishes. Husband (Plaintiff) then may attempt to sue Wife’s paramour (Defendant) for either Alienation of Affections and/or Criminal Conversation. Alternatively, if a husband has an extramarital relationship, the wife may attempt to sue his paramour. Both claims have a three (3) year statute of limitations.
The claims are not typically favored in North Carolina. For example, in 1984, the Court of Appeals attempted to abolish the claims, but was very quickly reversed by the Supreme Court. Nonetheless, the possibility of the abolishment of the torts increases every year as our legislature views them as increasingly antiquated.
What evidence do you have to show to make a claim for Alienation of Affection?
The elements for a claim of Alienation of Affection are that 1) Husband and wife have a marriage that has a genuine love and affection; 2) The love and affection that existed between husband and wife was alienated and destroyed; 3) A lover’s wrongful and malicious conduct was the controlling cause of the alienation; and 4) That alienation has damaged the other spouse.
First, it is important to consider that the elements of this claim are tricky because of its very nature. For instance, what is genuine love and affection? How can a jury determine that the love and affection that allegedly existed between a married couple was destroyed because of a third party’s actions? Does the third party have to have sex with plaintiff’s spouse in order to cause him or her to alienate his or her affections from his or her spouse? How can you determine what is wrongful and malicious conduct? Or, that the conduct was the controlling cause of the alienation? What kind of damages are we talking about? How can you put a dollar amount on a relationship lost?
1. Husband and wife must have a marriage that has genuine love and affection.
It is hard to pinpoint the definition of genuine love and affection. Alternatively, let us consider some factors that may tend to show when genuine love and affection did not exist in a marriage. This element is incredibly important because it is often the strongest defense for a Defendant. For example, if the married couple had been to counseling or had discussed separation for many months or years prior to the Plaintiff’s spouse meeting the paramour, then it is likely that one could argue there no longer existed genuine love and affection. While it is possible this is a strong argument, there is some North Carolina case law suggesting otherwise. One case involves a married couple who had separated prior to the paramour’s involvement. This separation was not important. In fact, the fact that the married couple had resumed their relationship was evidence that they had somehow managed to maintain the necessary genuine love and affection for purposes of the claim. Other case law suggests that even if a Plaintiff had an affair during the marriage, then the genuine love and affection is still not negated for purposes of proving the paramour’s wrongful conduct led to the alienation of the spouse’s affections. As you can see, these cases are very fact specific, thus whether a marriage had genuine love and affection is ultimately a question for the jury to decide.
2. The love and affection between Husband and Wife was alienated and destroyed.
This element is typically clear if the married couple has separated or divorced immediately subsequent to the relationship with the paramour.
3. The lover’s wrongful and malicious conduct was the controlling or effective cause of the alienation.
This element can be broken down into two parts.
First, what is malicious or wrongful conduct? According to Black’s Law Dictionary, malice, by definition, is “the intent, without justification or excuse, to commit a wrongful act.” In cases of alienation of affections, malice is presumed if the act of seduction or adultery (sexual intercourse) is shown. However, other actions performed by the paramour may rise to the level of malicious or wrongful conduct. For instance, conduct such as excessive telephone calls to and from Plaintiff’s spouse may be enough for a jury to consider the conduct malicious and wrongful if a jury determines that the paramour knew the potential harm his or her conduct may cause.
Second, all that is necessary to establish this element is to show that the wrongful acts of a defendant are the controlling or effective cause of the alienation, even if there are other causes which may have contributed to the alienation. Does the paramour have to have instigated the resulting alienation? Not necessarily. Affirmative conduct from the paramour will be sufficient. For example, in one North Carolina case, the paramour involved with the Plaintiff’s spouse said to the Plaintiff, “I am sorry I have done this to you.” When this was coupled with evidence of a hotel reservation, it was enough for a jury to find that Defendant’s conduct caused Plaintiff’s spouse to alienate her affections from him. Moreover, there is no need to show that the paramour was motivated by ill will towards the Plaintiff. Finally, there is no need to show that the spouse and paramour even had sexual intercourse.
4. The alienation has damaged the other spouse.
Damages are typically defined as a monetary compensation for a loss. There are two types of damages to be considered: compensatory damages and punitive damages.
Compensatory damages are damages that compensate the Plaintiff for the harm caused by the Defendant’s conduct. Generally, those damages would include expenses incurred by the Plaintiff for therapy costs, prescription medicine costs (if Plaintiff is facing long term depression or mental illness resulting from his or her spouse’s alienation), loss of services in the home (day-to -day household chores), loss of support (present and future earnings of his or her spouse), loss of consortium (sexual relations), emotional distress, injury to Plaintiff’s reputation, costs of litigation (including costs associated with the Alienation of Affections claim as well as the domestic case that may have resulted from a breakup of Plaintiff’s marriage).
Punitive damages are damages that are intended to punish a Defendant. For the question of punitive damages to be submitted to a jury in an Alienation of Affections case, there must be evidence of circumstances of aggravation beyond the proof of malice necessary to recover compensatory damages. These specific circumstances of aggravation include willful, wanton, aggravated or malicious conduct. So, first a Plaintiff must show evidence of malice. If the paramour and the spouse had sexual relations, it is likely that malice will be implied. Second, a Plaintiff must show the paramour aggravated the conduct. Some may say the paramour poured salt in an open wound. What are some specific circumstances of aggravation? Well, in one case, sufficient evidence of aggravation to justify a punitive damages award existed where the Plaintiff presented evidence that Plaintiff’s spouse and the paramour had sex at least two (2) times, the paramour accompanied Plaintiff’s spouse when returning the children to the custody of the Plaintiff, the paramour appeared unannounced at front door of the marital home to ask the Plaintiff if they could be friends, and paramour arrived in the driveway of the marital home while Plaintiff was visiting his children. Other circumstances that might suggest that the circumstances have been aggravated by Defendant’s conduct may include a Defendant calling Plaintiff’s spouse hundreds of times while having the knowledge of the marriage.
Under North Carolina law, punitive damages are never awarded merely because of a personal injury inflicted, nor are they measured by extent of injury; rather, they are awarded because of the outrageousness of the Defendant’s conduct. However, with outrageous conduct established, a jury still may not find a Defendant should be punished. Finally, in order to recover punitive damages, a jury must first award compensatory damages, even if those compensatory damages are nominal. N.C.G.S. §1D-25 and 35. Then, depending on the evidence presented, a jury can determine whether the evidence is sufficient to show that punitive damages should also be awarded.
The Elements of Criminal Conversation:
Do not let the name of this tort deceive you. Criminal Conversation is not criminal at all. And, a Plaintiff does not have to show a conversation. In fact, this claim is comparable to strict liability in a tort action in that if your spouse has sexual relations with a third party then that third party is guilty of Criminal Conversation and civil damages may be sought against him or her.
What evidence do you have to show for a claim of Criminal Conversation?
The elements of a claim for Criminal Conversation are 1) A lawful marriage existed; and 2) Sexual intercourse between the Defendant and the Plaintiff’s spouse, without the Plaintiff’s consent.
1. A lawful marriage existed.
Showing a lawful marriage is typically the easiest element to prove. Under North Carolina law, a valid and sufficient marriage is created by the consent of a male and female person who may lawfully marry, presently to take each other as husband and wife, freely, seriously and plainly expressed by each party in the presence of the other, either: in the presence of an ordained minister of any religious denomination, a minister authorized by a church, or a magistrate and with the consequent declaration by the minister or magistrate that the persons are husband and wife OR in accordance with any mode of solemnization recognized by any religion denomination, or federally or state recognized Indian Nation or Tribe. N.C.G.S. §51-1. The parties must have a valid marriage license signed by the register of deeds from the county in which the license was issued, and there must have been at least two (2) witnesses to the marriage ceremony. Lastly, the man and woman marrying must meet certain age and kinship requirements to wed. N.C.G.S. §51-2 - 4.
There is a three (3) year statute of limitations during which the claim for criminal conversation can be pursued.
2. Sexual intercourse between the defendant and plaintiff’s spouse, without plaintiff’s consent.
This element can be either very easy or very difficult to prove. Let’s break it down into two parts. The first part requires that the Plaintiff prove that sexual intercourse has occurred between Plaintiff’s spouse and a third-party lover. If a Plaintiff has physical evidence of his or her spouse and a third party having sexual intercourse, then the element is proven per se, or automatically. This evidence can be either testimony and/or physical evidence such as photographs or video. This is rarely the case. More often, it is not that simple or clear-cut. In those situations, a Plaintiff must show that his or her spouse had what is called an “inclination and opportunity” to commit adultery (sexual intercourse). How do you show inclination and opportunity? Truthfully, it varies from case to case.In one case, a Florida man called Plaintiff’s wife at home almost every night. Plaintiff asked Defendant to stop calling his wife. Eventually, Plaintiff’s marriage to his wife collapsed. However, the Court of Appeals stated that mere conjecture about sexual intercourse is not enough and that inclination and opportunity must also be present. Thus, a Plaintiff must show circumstantial evidence. For example, a Plaintiff may have evidence of a hotel key with reservations made and witnesses’ testimony that Plaintiff’s wife and Defendant went into the hotel room at night and departed early the next morning wearing different clothes. This may be considered inclination and opportunity. However, it is essential to remember that this question is one for the jury to decide and therefore often extremely difficult to prove without compelling evidence.
The second part of the element requires that Plaintiff did not consent to his or her spouse’s conduct with a third party. If the Plaintiff consented to the action then he or she has no claim for Criminal Conversation (or Alienation of Affections). BUT, the act of forgiveness or continuing to live with the spouse after the fact does not constitute consent. A Defendant’s evidence of consent is a strong defense to this claim.
Okay, so if you can show your spouse has committed adultery, then can you get monetary damages? Maybe. As in claims for Alienation of Affections, there are two types of damages to be considered. The first type of damages are called “Compensatory Damages.” The second type of damages are called “Punitive Damages”. A jury may consider the issue of punitive damages for Criminal Conversation based solely upon evidence that Defendant engaged in sexual intercourse with plaintiff’s spouse. Once established, Plaintiff is entitled to recover, as a matter of law, nominal damages which in turn supports a punitive award. However, it is important to remember that damages are also a question for the jury and nominal damages can be as little as $1.00.
Some defenses to both claims may include: 1) Invasion of Privacy, 2) Malicious Prosecution, 3) Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress, or 4) Abuse of process.